The first digital image was made on a computer in 1957 and showed researcher Russell Kirsch's baby son. Since then the era of imaging technologies has begun - satellite imaging, CAT scans, bar codes on packaging, desktop publishing, digital photography etc. sprang from this grainy image.
A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image using ones and zeros. Depending on whether or not the image resolution is fixed, it may be of vector or raster type:
Raster images have a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. The digital image contains a fixed number of rows and columns of pixels. Pixels are the smallest individual element in an image, holding quantized values that represent the brightness of a given color at any specific point. Typically, the pixels are stored in computer memory as a raster map, a two-dimensional array of small integers. These values are often transmitted or stored in a compressed form.
Each pixel of a raster image is typically associated to a specific position in some 2D region, and has a value consisting of one or more quantities related to that position. Digital images can be classified according to number and nature of those samples:
Raster images can also be classified by the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel, in other words, by color depth:
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